Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy -- Adult
(Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic—Adult; HCM—Adult; Idiopathic Hypertrophic Subaortic Stenosis—Adult; Asymmetric Septal Hypertrophy—Adult; ASH—Adult; HOCM—Adult; Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy—Adult)
Hypertrophic—can be divided into two types:
- Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM)—the muscle between the two valves of the heart becomes so enlarged that it obstructs the blood flow in the heart
- Non-obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy—non-obstructive form, the enlarged muscle is not large enough to block blood flow
|Normal Heart and Heart With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy|
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- A gene that causes the abnormal structure of the heart muscle. It can be inherited or can happen from changes in the genes over time.
- A defective gene that controls growth of the heart muscle
- A viral infection
- Having a family member with HCM
- Being over age 60 and having hypertension
- Chest pain
- Fainting, particularly during exercise
- Dizziness or lightheadedness, particularly following exercise
- Heart palpitations
- Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
- General fatigue
- Tiring easily during exercise or activity
- Shortness of breath when lying down
- Stress test —tests how the body responds to exercise, which can help in detecting heart and lung problems
- Echocardiography —uses high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) to examine the size, shape, and motion of the heart
- Transesophageal echocardiogram —images of the heart are taken to detect abnormalities
- Heart monitor—a portable electrocardiogram (ECG) records continuous heart activity usually over a 24-72 hour period to determine regularity of the heartbeat
Heart catheter—a catheter is inserted into an artery in the groin area and threaded to the heart chambers
- An x-ray machine shows real-time images of your body as a dye is injected through the catheter. This allows angiograms (photos) to be taken of the blood vessels and the heart.
- Blood tests
- Chest x-ray —uses radiation to take a picture of structures inside the body, especially bones.
Alcohol Septal Ablation
Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (ICD)
- If you have a family member who has been diagnosed with HCM—you and other family members should be screened for the condition
- If family history puts you at higher risk for HCM—regular echocardiograms may reduce the risk of death or complications from HCM
- If you have high blood pressure—take medications and follow other instructions as directed by your physician.
American Heart Association http://www.heart.org
Cardiomyopathy Association http://www.cardiomyopathy.org
Canadian Cardiovascular Society http://www.ccs.ca
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada http://www.heartandstroke.com
American Heart Association. Cardiomyopathy. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4468. Accessed June 26, 2007.
Cleveland Clinic Heart and Vascular Institute. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The Cleveland Clinic Heart and Vascular Institute website. Available at: http://www.clevelandclinic.org/heartcenter/pub/guide/disease/hcm/default.htm. Accessed June 26, 2007.
DynaMed Editorial Team. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated October 25, 2010. Accessed November 5, 2010.
Erwin JP, Nishimura RA, et al. Dual chamber pacing for patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy: a clinical perspective in 2000. Mayo Clin Proc . 2000;75:173-180.
The HCM Program. St. Luke's Roosevelt Hospital Center website. Available at: http://www.hcmny.org/whatis/index.html . Accessed June 26, 2007.
Maron BJ, Nishimura RA, et al. Assessment of permanent dual chamber pacing for patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circulation. 1999;99:2927-2933.
Mayo Clinic. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Mayo Clinic website. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy/DS00948. Updated March 25, 2009. Accessed November 5, 2010.
McCully RB, Nishimura RA, et al. Extent of clinical improvement after surgical treatment of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Circulation. 1996;94:467-471.
- Reviewer: Michael J. Fucci, DO
- Review Date: 09/2013 -
- Update Date: 09/30/2013 -